Bone cancer is a description of a malignant bone tumor that kills healthy bone tissue.
Bone cancer is divided into primary and secondary bone cancer, primary bone cancer develops elsewhere in bone cells and secondary bone cancer eventually spreads to bones.
Bone cancer may start in any bone in the body, but it most commonly affects the arms and legs of the pelvis or the long bones, bone cancer is rare and represents less than 1% of all cancers, non-cancerous tumors of the bone are actually much more common than cancerous ones.
It’s rare to have cancer that starts in a bone, it is more common to have cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body.
Primary cancer of the bone is rare, it represents much less than 1% of all new diagnosed cancers, an estimated 3,450 new cases of primary bone cancer in the United States will be diagnosed in 2018.
Cancer that metastasizes (spreads) to bones from other parts of the body is referred to as metastatic (or secondary) bone cancer and refers to the organ or tissue in which it started, for example, as a cancer of the breast that metastasized the bone.
Cancers that metastasize the bone in adults are much more common than primary bone cancer, for example, in the United States, an estimated 280,000 adults aged 18–64 years had metastatic cancer in bones at the end of 2008.
Causes Bone Cancer.
The following groups of people may have an increased risk of developing cancer of the bone:
- Individuals with radiation therapy.
- Individuals with Paget’s disease history.
- Children or young adults up to the age of 20.
- Individuals with close relatives with bone cancer.
- A rare genetic condition for people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
- Individuals with hereditary retinoblastoma, a type of eye cancer that affects very young children most commonly.
Facts on Bone Cancer.
- There are several different types of bone cancer.
- In the affected area, early symptoms may include pain.
- A range of tests for diagnosis can help diagnose cancer of the bone.
- Benign tumors of the bone are more common than tumors of the malignant bone.
- Everything can be used to treat bone cancer with radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery.
Types of Bone Cancer.
There are three types of bone cancer:
- Ewing’s sarcoma.
It occurs most often between 10 and 19 years of age, the knee and upper arm are more common.
Begins in cartilage, usually after 40 years of age.
It most often occurs in children and adolescents under 19 years of age, in boys, it’s more common than girls.
Stages of Bone Cancer.
Bone cancer is staged dependent on how advanced it is:
- Stage 1: There has been no spread of cancer from the bone. there’s no aggressive cancer.
- Stage 2: This is the same, but more aggressive than stage 1.
- Stage 3: There are tumors in the same bone in at least two places.
- Stage 4: The cancer has spread throughout the body to other parts.
Symptoms of Bone Cancer.
In the affected area, the patient initially experiences pain, the pain gets worse and more persistent over time, the pain is subtle in some cases, and for several months the patient may not see a doctor.
Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include:
- Bone pain.
- Unintended loss of weight.
- A lump in the affected area.
- Weakened bone, which causes fracture.
- Swelling and tenderness in the area affected.