Define of Diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases that affect how blood sugar (glucose) is used in your body, glucose is vital to your health because the cells that make up your muscles and tissues are an important source of energy, it is also the main source of fuel for your brain.
Diabetes is a number of diseases involving hormone insulin problems. the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) usually releases insulin to help your body store and use the food you eat with the sugar and fat.
The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type, but, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood, too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.
The estimated number of people over the age of 18 with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in the United States is 30,2 million. The figure is between 27.9% and 32.7% of the population.
Diabetes can occur when very little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas or when insulin is not adequately responded by the body. there’s no cure yet, in order to remain healthy, people with diabetes need to manage their disease.
Conditions of chronic diabetes include diabetes type 1 and diabetes type2, Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes if your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not as high as diabetes and gestational diabetes that occurs during pregnancy but can resolve after delivery of the baby.
How common is diabetes?
By 2015-16, there were 30.3 million people living with diabetes in the United States, or 9.4 percent of the population. more than 1 in 4 of them were unaware of the disease they had. Diabetes affects 1 in 4 individuals over 65 years of age.
Approximately 90-95% of adult cases are type 2 diabetes.
What health issues can diabetes individuals develop?
- kidney disease.
- eye problems.
- nerve damage.
- foot problems.
- heart disease.
Three major diabetes types can develop: Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes:
This type, also known as juvenile diabetes, occurs when insulin is not produced by the body. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are insulin-dependent, meaning they have to take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.
Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction that stops your body from making insulin (the body attacks itself by mistake). approximately 5% of people with diabetes have type 1.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms often develop rapidly. In children, teens, and young adults, it is usually diagnosed, you will need to take insulin every day to survive if you have type 1 diabetes. Nowadays, nobody knows how to prevent diabetes of type 1.
Type 2 diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes affects how insulin is used by the body, while the body still produces insulin, the cells in the body do not respond as effectively as they did once, unlike in type I.
According to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, this is the most common type of diabetes and has strong links to obesity.
Type 2 diabetes, insulin is not used properly in your body and blood sugar cannot be maintained at normal levels, approximately 90% of people with diabetes have type 2. it develops over many years and is usually diagnosed in adults (but in children, adolescents, and young adults increasingly).
This type occurs when the body may become less sensitive to insulin in women during pregnancy, gestational diabetes in all women does not occur and usually resolves after birth.
Gestational diabetes usually goes away after your baby is born, but later in life it increases your risk of type 2 diabetes, as a child or teen, your baby is more likely to have obesity and is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life as well.
Symptoms of diabetes vary depending on how high your blood sugar is, Some people may not initially experience symptoms, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. symptoms tend to develop rapidly and be more severe in type 1 diabetes.
Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are:
- Vision blurred.
- Increased thirst.
- Usual urination.
- Extreme starvation.
- Slow healing of diseases.
- Unexplained loss of weight.
- Frequent infections such as infections of the gums or skin and vaginal infections.
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, although in childhood or adolescence it often appears, the most common type of type 2 diabetes can develop at any age, although it is more common in people over the age of 40.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves injections of insulin or using an insulin pump, frequent blood sugar checks, and counting of carbohydrates.
Type 2 diabetes treatment primarily involves changes in lifestyle, blood sugar monitoring, along with diabetes medicines, insulin or both.
Monitor your sugar in the blood. Depending on your treatment plan, if you are taking insulin, you may check and record your blood sugar as frequently as four times a day or more.