Hematuria (Blood in urine).
It can be alarming to see blood in your urine, while the cause is harmless in many cases, there may be a serious disorder in the blood in the urine (hematuria).
Hämaturia means blood appearance in the urine. Hämaturia occurs most often in very small amounts (microscopic haematuria) and is only detected by a simple dipstick test (urine sample), less frequently visible blood may appear as a brown discoloration or red in the urine.
It is called macroscopic haematuria when the urine is visibly colored red by the amount of blood present, blood that is not visible to the naked eye but is known to be microscopic haematuria on microscopic examination or with a urine test strip.
Macroscopic haematuria means that the urine is visibly red, however, red, pink, tea colored, brown or black urine may not contain any red blood cells after microscopic examination.
While usually benign and associated with infection of the urinary tract or kidney stones, and often self limiting and with no identifiable cause, haematuria may also be a sign of malignancy or kidney disease.
Blood that is called gross hematuria that you can see, when your doctor tests your urine, urinary blood that is visible only under a microscope (microscopic hematuria) is found, either way, determining the reason for the bleeding is important.
What causes haematuria?
Blood should not normally appear in the urine, the filtering units of the kidney glomeruli keep red blood cells in the blood stream, hematuria can cause any part of the urinary tract from the kidneys to the bladder and urethra.
Blood in the urine may come from anywhere in the urinary tract, from the top of the kidneys to the urethra (a tube carrying urine from the bladder to the outside).
There is a very long list of possible causes, but most cases account for infections, stones, tumors or trauma (injury).
Because of the presence of red blood cells, gross hematuria produces pink, red or colacolored urine, the production of red urine requires little blood, and the bleeding is usually not painful. However, it can be painful to pass blood clots in your urine.
- Trauma — Signs of traumatic injury to the surface of the body such as bruises, swelling, punctures, and open wounds will often occur.
- Kidney stones — It can cause severe back, side or groin pain, nausea and vomiting, or painful and frequent urination when a kidney stone is trapped in one of the ureters (the narrow tubes that connect each kidney to the bladder).
- Infection with the prostate — There may be pain in the lower back or in the area between the scrotum and anus, pain during ejaculation, semen blood, and sometimes fever and chills.
- Infection of the kidney or bladder — Symptoms depend on the site of infection, but may include severe mid-back pain on one side, fever, shaking chills, nausea and vomiting, pain above the pubic or bladder region, foul-smelling urine, urinating need more than normal, and pain or discomfort during urination.
- Kidney or bladder tumor — Most cancers of the kidney and bladder grow without pain or discomfort, the most common symptoms when symptoms develop at the end of urination are abdominal pain, more frequent urination and pain.
Causes of Haematuria.
Because of inflammation in the kidney, haematuria may originate from the kidney itself, eg glomerulonephritis affecting filtering units (glomeruli).
Other signs of kidney disease often occur when this is the cause of haematuria, such as:
- high blood pressure.
- protein in the urine (proteinuria).
- abnormal blood tests of kidney function.
When to see a doctor.
Whenever you notice blood in your urine, make an appointment to see your doctor.
Some medicines, such as the laxative Ex lax, and some foods, including beets, rhubarb and berries, may turn your urine red. within a few days, a change in the color of urine caused by drugs, food or exercise may go away.
Bloody urine looks different, but perhaps you can’t tell the difference, if you see red-colored urine, it’s best to see your doctor.
Treatment may involve taking antibiotics to clear up an urinary tract infection, depending on the condition that causes your hematuria.
Try a prescription medicine to shrink the enlarged prostate or break the bladder or kidney stones with shock wave therapy, there is no need for treatment in some cases.